Flat washers are covered under the ASTM specification F844. These washers are unhardened and intended for general use.
These washers are through hardened or carburized to add strength, but are physically smaller than a standard F844 flat washer.
Ogee refers to the curved shape of this large, cast iron washer. They are typically used in dock and timber construction.
Malleable cast iron round washers are used in dock and wood construction.
Round plate washers are simply a low carbon steel, oversized cut washer designed to provide a larger bearing surface than an F844 washer.
Square plate washers are used in a variety of industrial applications. They come in both plain and galvanized.
Beveled washers are intended to compensate for bolts and rods set at an angle and create a flat surface to tension.
Hardened beveled washers are covered under the ASTM specification F436.
Split lock washers provide greater bolt tensioning for tighter assemblies and provide protection against loosening resulting from vibration.
Load indicating washers (LIW) are used to develop the correct tension when installing A325 or A490 structural bolts.
These oversized washers have a large bearing surface designed to prevent bolt heads and nuts from pulling through brick or concrete walls.
Hillside washers are used to evenly distribute load in cross bracing applications
Clipped hardened washers are used where space limitations require one side be clipped.