Dane's FAQs

Tightening Bolts by the Head

Can I tighten A325 and A490 structural bolts by turning the head of the bolt?

Yes. Per the RCSC Specification for Structural Joints Using High-Strength Bolts (2014), section 8.2, it says: “When it is impractical to turn the nut, pretensioning by turning the bolt head is permitted while the rotation of the nut is prevented, provided that the washer requirements in Section 6.2 are met”

Pitch Diameter Bolts with Timber Connectors

Can I use reduced body bolts with shear plates and split rings?

Although ASME B18.2.1 allows for reduced body diameter bolts (where the unthreaded shank is equal to the pitch diameter of the threads), the American Wood Council does not.  In Section 13.1.3.3 of the 2015 National Design Specification for Wood Construction, it says: “Bolts used with split ring and shear plate connectors… shall have an unreduced... Read more

Turn of Nut Method

What is the turn of the nut method, and does it apply to anchor bolts?

The turn of the nut method is a very popular and reasonably reliable method for tensioning (F3125) A325 and A490 structural bolts without the need for expensive torque wrenches or tension measuring devices. It is a simple guide that tells the user to rotate the nut a specified amount depending on the bolt length and... Read more

J429 Strength Requirements

Why are larger grade 2 and grade 5 bolts less strong than smaller diameter bolts?

The reason is similar but different for the drop in strength of grade 2 and grade 5 fasteners. For J429 grade 2 fasteners, the drop is due to the manufacturing process. Small, mass produced cap screws are cold formed by drawing and forming wire. The wire, as it is cold formed, work hardens which increases... Read more

Grade 7 vs Grade 7L

What is the difference between A194 grade 7 and grade 7L nuts?

A194 grade 7 nuts are commonly used nuts for both high temperature and low temperature applications, and is commonly paired with bolts made to either A193 or A320. When used in conjunction with A320 bolts in a low temperature application, or if specially requested, they are charpy tested to assure they will perform well in... Read more

Charpy Testing

What is Charpy Testing and what ASTM standards require it?

Charpy testing, or impact testing was developed in 1905 by Georges Charpy in order to determine the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. It was noticed that as the temperature drops, the tensile and yield of steel increases, but the ductility drops, leading to brittle and sometimes catastrophic failures. A standard Charpy... Read more

Extra Washers

Are there restrictions on using extra washers to accomodate tightening a nut onto a bolt that may be a bit too long and the nut is running out of thread?

Per the RCSC section 16.2-12, multiple washers are permitted under the nut in order to resolve this problem.

G90 vs F2329 (A153)

How is G90 galvanized steel different from F2329 (or A153) hot dip galvanized steel?

Both are produced via the hot dip process, but with slightly different processing steps. G90 is a coating grade within the steel sheet specification ASTM A653, and is produced by uncoiling steel coils and running it at high speed through the pickling process and molten zinc before it passes through an air curtain, which creates... Read more

Proof vs. Yield Strength

What is proof strength of a bolt and how it is different from yield strength?

Proof strength, or proof load, is the full size equivalent of a yield test. Yield testing is typically only performed on machined specimens. In most fastener standards, full size testing is the preferred method, and the referee method if there is a discrepancy between the two test results. Because of the difficulty of getting reliable... Read more

A194 2H Nut

Nut Grade Mark Visibility

Does it matter if we install nuts on A325s and A490s with the manufacturer’s ID and grade mark showing, or can they be installed either way?

There is no published requirement for making sure the ID marks are on the outside and visible. The main concern would be being able to ascertain that the proper nuts were installed. If all the ID markings are on the inside, they would not be visible, and an inspector could not see them. That said,... Read more