Can I use ASTM 108 Round Bar, a CF-1018 round bar, for F1554 Grade 55?

Steel RacksThe problem with ASTM A108, 1018CF is that there are no mechanical requirements and typically the test reports that accompany this steel reflect the chemistry only and not the strength of the steel. Test reports will need to accompany this material that reflect all four of the values listed below, and these values will need to meet the requirements of the F1554 grade 55 specification. If the test reports do not reflect any or all of the required mechanical properties, a sample of the same heat of material will need to be tested by a laboratory to determine if the 1018 material meets all of the criteria.

ASTM F1554 grade 55 has the following mechanical requirements for diameters 1/4″ – 2″:

  • Minimum Yield: 55,000 psi
  • Tensile Strength: 75,000 psi – 95,000 psi
  • Minimum Elongation: 21%
  • Minimum Reduction of Area: 30%

We have found two resources that give theoretical values one could expect 1018 cold finished steel to meet but they are very different. The steel warehouse sources and theoretical values are listed below:

Steel Supplier Yield, min, ksi Tensile, ksi Elong %, min Reduction of Area
Earl M Jorgensen 70 85 28% 55%
Pacific Machinery and Tool Steel 54 64 15% Not Reported

Based on theoretical values reported by Earl M Jorgensen, in theory 1018 CF should meet the requirements of F1554 grade 55, while the theoretical values reported by Pacific Machine and Tool Steel indicate that 1018 CF will not meet the mechanical requirements of F1554 grade 55. The only way to know with 100% certainty is to have the specific heat of steel tested for Yield Strength, Tensile Strength, Elongation, and Reduction of Area.

Our steel inventory includes material certified to meet all the requirements of grade 55. Most of this steel is supplied directly from North American steel mills and rolled specifically to meet the ASTM specifications.

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    We have specified for ASTM F1554 grade 55 and 105 anchor bolts. The supplier has confirmed that he would supply as per our specification. Now he’s coming with substitutions arguing that AISI 1045 or AISI 4140 are superior to ASTM F1554. Can you please advise if AISI 1045 / 4140 can be substituted for ASTM F1544. Is this typical of suppliers ?
    Thanks

    @Izabela F1554 differs from 1045 and 4140 in several regards. F1554 is a fastener specification that has specific chemical and mechanical properties that are tailored to perform in anchor bolt applications. AISI 1045 and 4140 are both chemical-only steel grades that are designed to be heat treated and can be used for varying applications. Both 1045 and 4140 in their as-rolled (that is, non-heat treated) condition do not have mechanical properties typically reported on their material certifications, but the typical properties if they were to be tested would fall outside the parameters specified by ASTM F1554. AISI 1045 and 4140 would typically have strengths above the maximum allowed for F1554 Grade 55, but below the minimum for F1554 Grade 105. Additionally, 1045 and 4140 would not have the ductility (elongation and reduction of area) required by F1554.

    F1554 Grade 55, as supplied by Portland Bolt, is a low carbon, high alloy steel that we have manufactured to our exacting specifications. Additionally, Portland Bolt’s F1554 Grade 55 also conforms to supplement S1, which specifies weldable steel.

    F1554 Grade 105 can be manufactured from several grades of heat treated steel, of which 4140 is the most common. The F1554 specification requires that Grade 105 be made from heat treated steel, so your off-the-shelf warehouse grade 4140 is unlikely to meet it. Additionally the F1554 Grade 105 supplied by Portland Bolt will come with the Charpy test per supplemental requirement S5, ensuring low temperature ductility.

    To answer your question as to whether or not this is typical of suppliers, the answer is unfortunately too often, yes. Many suppliers who do not understand the F1554 specification will try to substitute other grades in order to get the order. This is a dangerous practice because they do not fully comprehend the reasons for specifying the F1554 grades in the first place. Welding, cold temperatures, ductility, and a maximum tensile strength are all crucial reasons for supplying the correct grade as specified by the design engineer. Portland Bolt supplies both F1554 Grade 55 and 105 in full compliance with ASTM, and mill test reports are always available, both in paper and electronic form. Be very caution of suppliers who say an anchor bolt grade isn’t available or they are going “substitute” stronger material.

    @MIGUEL FRANKLIN: Yes, ASTM F1554 is designed specifically for anchor bolts. Engineers are moving towards using this standard as the default anchor bolt specification. A449 with a minimum yield of 58-92 ksi (depending on diameter), is between grade 55 and grade 105 in strength. So this would need to be taken into consideration when designing foundations.

    I’m aware of Departments of Transportation agencies that are changing standard specifications from A449 to F1554. We see a trend towards F1554 becoming the primary anchor bolt specification of choice.

    Additionally, the F1554G55 material that Portland Bolt stocks is melted and rolled in such a way that it is capable of passing the Charpy V-Notch impact test that is sometimes specified as a supplementary requirement to the F1554 specification. The A108/1018CF steel will most likely not pass that test as it is not a fine grain steel.

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