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What relatively new ASTM hot-dip galvanizing specification was developed in February of 2005 and is now replacing A153 as the preferred galvanizing specification referenced in many ASTM fastener specifications?

Answer: F2329

Visit the F2329 summary page to learn about this new galvanizing specification.

You said: A687

ASTM A194 Grade 2H heavy hex nuts can be substituted for A563 Grade DH heavy hex nuts.

Answer: True

The ASTM A563 nut specification allows A194 Grade 2H nuts to be substituted for A563 Grade DH nuts. Note A in Table X1.1 of the A563 specification reads as follows: “The availability of DH nuts in nominal sizes 3/8 in. and larger is very limited and generally available only on special orders of 50,000 pieces or more. For smaller quantities A194 Grade 2H nuts should be considered.”

You said: False

What is the standard thread length for structural bolts (ASTM A325, A490)?

Answer: Thread length is shorter than a typical bolt and varies based on diameter

ASTM A325 and A490 structural bolts specify shorter thread lengths since these bolts are used for steel-to-steel connections. Since the amount of grip length is often critical, the thread lengths are much shorter. A325 heavy hex bolts with the S1 supplement are to be fully threaded and marked with “A325 T” per the S1.2 supplement.

Nominal Bolt Size (in.) 12 58 34 78 1 118 114 138 112
Thread Length (in.) 1.00 1.25 1.38 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.00 2.25 2.25

You said: Twice the diameter plus ½”.

Are SAE Grade 2, 5, and 8 bolts available in diameters over 1½”?

Answer: No, SAE only covers bolts up to and including 1½” diameter.

SAE J429 (1999) states, “This SAE standard covers the mechanical and material requirements for inch-series steel bolts, screws, studs, SEMS, and U-bolts used for automotive and related industries in sizes to 1½ in. inclusive.” When diameters larger than 1½” are required, ASTM specifications should be considered since they cover fasteners larger than 1½” diameter.

SAE J429 Grade ASTM Equivalent
Grade 1 A307 Grades A or B
Grade 2 A307 Grades A or B
Grade 5 A449
Grade 8 A354 Grade BD
This chart compares SAE and ASTM specifications that are similar but not identical in diameters through 1½".

You said: Yes, most fastener suppliers stock SAE bolts in these sizes.

Bolts with forged heads are identical in strength to rods that have a nut welded to one end in lieu of a forged head.

Answer: False

We often see fastener distributors and manufacturers without forging capabilities talking customers into switching from a headed bolt to a rod with a nut since they are unable to provide the forged product that was engineered into the structure. Substituting a nut for a forged head is not limited to anchor bolts, but that is where we see it occur most frequently. In-house mechanical testing performed in Portland Bolt’s testing laboratory resulted in up to a 12% reduction in the strength of a threaded rod with a nut replacing a forged head. Making the decision to switch from a bolt with a forged head to a rod with a nut should always be approved by an engineer to prevent any liability in making such a substitution should a failure of the fasteners occur. Learn more about this topic and the ASTM testing specification F606.

You said: False

Can ASTM A490 and A354 Grade BD bolts with an ultimate tensile strength that exceeds 150 ksi be hot-dipped galvanized?

Answer: No, the preparation process prior to galvanizing may cause hydrogen embrittlement.

Some high strength bolts can be galvanized while others cannot. In the construction fastener industry, typically the phrase “high strength” refers to bolts that have been quenched and tempered (heat treated) to develop the proper strength requirements of a given specification. There are two separate issues that are involved: hydrogen embrittlement concerns and the effect of heat on quenched and tempered fasteners. To learn more visit this detailed FAQ on galvanizing high strength bolts.

You said: Yes, hot-dip galvanized high strength bolts are readily available in the marketplace.

ASTM is an acronym for:

Answer: American Society for Testing and Materials

American Society for Testing and Materials is a leading standards development organization. Portland Bolt participates as a voting member on ASTM Committee F16 on Fasteners. This committee has jurisdiction over 60 fastener standards.

You said: American Society for Testing and Materials

Which of the following ASTM specifications covers, “straight and bent, headed and headless, carbon, carbon boron, alloy, or high-strength low alloy steel anchor bolts (also known as anchor rods)?”


The ASTM F1554 specification was introduced in 1994 and covers anchor bolts designed to anchor structural supports to concrete foundations. For more in-depth technical information of the F1554 anchor bolt specification, visit www.F1554AnchorBolts.com.

You said: A193

When threading a fastener that will ultimately be hot-dip galvanized, the bolts are:

Answer: Cut or rolled with the exact same dimensions as they would be on a black (plain) bolt.

Bolts are not threaded any differently when they are to be galvanized than if they are to remain plain finish. Instead, the galvanized nuts are tapped slightly oversized to accommodate the thickness that hot dip galvanizing adds. Chasing of threads after galvanizing is not an acceptable practice since it will often remove all of the zinc exposing the fastener to premature corrosion. Portland Bolt’s custom designed galvanizing line uses centrifugal force to remove excess zinc from threads while still leaving the threads with a layer of corrosion resistant zinc.

You said: Threaded undersized to accommodate the galvanizing thickness.

SAE is an acronym for:

Answer: Society of Automotive Engineers

The Society of Automotive Engineers is a standards development organization covering the mechanical and material requirements for fasteners used in automotive and related industries.

You said: Society of Automotive Engineers

Plain finish (black) or zinc plated nuts can be used on hot-dip galvanized bolts.

Answer: False

Hot-dip galvanized nuts need to be used with hot-dip galvanized bolts since galvanized nuts are tapped oversize to accommodate for the extra 2 – 6 mils (.002 – .006) of zinc that are added to the threads of the bolt during the galvanizing process. A common misconception is that bolts that are going to be hot-dip galvanized are threaded undersize since the galvanizing will increase the size of the threads. This is not correct. Bolts are threaded to the same tolerances, regardless of whether they will be galvanized or remain plain finish. Instead, it is the nuts that are tapped oversize to allow for the zinc on the threads of the bolt. Zinc plated nuts will also not fit a galvanized bolt since they are not tapped oversize. For overtapping allowances, refer to our summary of the ASTM A563 nut specification.

You said: False

Unless otherwise specified, which of the following ASTM specifications requires 8UN threads (8 threads per inch) on bolts larger than 1″ diameter?

Answer: A193 Grade B7

Specifications A193 and A320 require 8UN threads on bolts larger than 1″ diameter. Most other common construction fastener specifications require UNC (Unified National Coarse) threads unless otherwise specified.

You said: A307 Grade B

Which of the following ASTM specifications covers, “Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High Temperature or High Pressure Service”?

Answer: A193

Originally approved in 1936, this specification is heavily utilized in petroleum and chemical construction applications. The ASTM standard covers alloy steel and stainless steel bolting materials for high temperature service. This specification includes fasteners intended for use in pressure vessels, valves, flanges, and fittings.

You said: A449

The anchor bolt specification A307 Grade C was recently replaced by which ASTM specification?

Answer: F1554 Grade 36

As of August 2007, ASTM A307 Grade C has been replaced by F1554 Grade 36. The new specification covers mild steel anchor bolts. Portland Bolt will continue to supply A307 Grade C anchor bolts upon request.

You said: A307 Grade B

What does a fastener’s specified tensile strength refer to?

Answer: The amount of axially-applied stress a bolt can withstand before breaking or fracturing.

Tensile strength is the amount of axially-applied stress a bolt can resist before breaking. The ultimate tensile strength of a material is formulated by dividing the area of the material tested (the cross section) by the stress placed on the material, generally expressed in terms of thousand pounds per square inch (ksi). Tensile strength is an important measurement of a bolt’s ability to perform in an application, and the minimum tensile strength (and sometimes maximum) is referenced in ASTM specifications.

You said: The amount of axially-applied stress a bolt can withstand before breaking or fracturing.

Are SAE Grade 8 bolts the same as an ASTM A325 bolt?

Answer: No, Grade 8 bolts are stronger and A325 bolts are specially designed for structural steel connections.

ASTM A325 and SAE J429 Grade 8 bolts are not the same. As a matter of fact, they couldn’t be more different. Grade 8 bolts are significantly stronger than an A325. An ASTM specification with similar strength properties to Grade 8 is ASTM A490. Use the strength by grade chart to compare strengths. ASTM A325 bolts are heavy hex structural bolts and used in structural steel connections, while SAE Grade 8 bolts are finished hex cap screws and typically used in automotive and equipment applications. By nature, an SAE bolt is also a more precision fastener with tighter dimensional tolerances than an ASTM bolt.

You said: Yes, they have the same strength properties, but only Grade 8 bolts are meant for structural steel connections.

Which of the following ASTM specifications covers, “Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service”?

Answer: A320

Originally approved in 1948, the ASTM A320 specification covers alloy steel and stainless steel bolting materials for low temperature service.

You said: A320

What ASTM specification is equivalent to AASHTO M314 (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials)?

Answer: F1554

The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials is a standards development organization covering materials for state highway projects. Many of the AASHTO specifications cross reference directly to ASTM specifications. Follow the link for a cross reference AASHTO to ASTM Conversion Chart.

You said: A325

A193 Grade B7 material can always be substituted for F1554 Grade 55.

Answer: False

Be skeptical of fastener distributors and manufacturers with limited manufacturing capabilities who attempt to substitute 1045 round bar or even A193 Grade B7 material for F1554 Grade 55. These materials and other grades of steel may exceed the minimum tensile and yield strength requirements of the F1554 Grade 55 specification, but will usually not meet the elongation and/or reduction of area requirements. Grade 55 round bar is not commonly available through local steel warehouses, and consequently, many companies attempt to substitute a more readily available material with significantly different chemical and mechanical properties. Portland Bolt buys mill runs of Grade 55 round bar and stocks this material for immediate processing. A company making such a substitution could assume a tremendous amount of liability because when it comes to fasteners, stronger is not always better. Such a substitution may be okay, but the design engineer may have intended the fastener to have the combination of strength and ductility that Grade 55 material provides.

You said: False

Which of these ASTM specifications does not develop its high strength through a heat treating process?

Answer: F1554 Grade 55

F1554 Grade 55 is a high-strength low-alloy steel used for anchor bolts. Unlike the other grades listed, F1554 Grade 55 does not develop its strength through a heat treating process and provided the material meets Supplementary S1 requirements, it is weldable.

You said: A449

Anchor bolts with reduced body diameter and rolled threads do not meet ASTM requirements for specifications F1554 and A449.

Answer: False

Technically, any specification with the exception of A325 and A490 structural bolts can be produced with a reduced body and rolled threads.

You said: False